UC Davis Natural Reserve System - Jepson Prairie Reserve


Delta green ground beetle (Elaphrus viridis) and Solano grass (Orcuttia mucronata) Recovery Plan. Portland, Oregon, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Arnold, R. A. (1983). Biological studies of the Delta green ground beetle, Elaphrus viridis Horn (Coleoptera: Carabidae), at Jepson Prairie Preserve in 1983. Berkeley, University of California, Berkeley.

Barry, W. J. (1972). The Central Valley Prairie Volume I. Sacramento, State of California- The Resources Agency: 82.     

Barry, W. J. (1981). Jepson Prairie - Will it be preserved? Fremontia 9(1): 7-11.

Barry, W. J. (1981). Selected bibliography on native grasses. Fremontia 9(1): 19-20.         

Barry, S. (1995). Vernal pools on California's annual grasslands. Rangelands 17(5): 173-175.         

Bartolome, J. W. (1981). Stipa pulchra, a survivor from a pristine prairie. Fremontia 9(1): 3-6.        

CNPS (1996). Conference on the Ecology, Conservation, and Management of Vernal Pool Ecosystems, Sacramento, California, California Native Plant Society.

Crampton, B. (1959). The grass genera Orcuttia and Neostapfia: a study in the habitat and morphological specialization. Madrono 15: 97-111.

Crampton, B. (1976). A historical perspective on the botany of the vernal pools in California. Vernal Pools: Their Ecology and Conservation, University of California, Davis, Institute of Ecology.

Dyer, A. R., H.C. Fossum and J.W. Menke (1996). Emergence and survival of Nassella pulchra in a California grassland. Madrono 43(2): 316-333.         

Dyer, A. R. and K. J. Rice (1997). Evidence of spatial genetic structure in a California bunchgrass population. Oecologia (Berlin) 112(3): 333-339.

We investigated the scale of genetic variation of purple needlegrass (Nassella pulchra), a species commonly used in California for grassland restoration. Common garden and field data revealed evidence of genetic differentiation between two intermixed microhabitats characterized by differences in soil depth and community composition. We assessed the genetic variation within a single population using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) data collected from clusters of five individuals in 40 locations. We found no evidence for genetic structure at the whole population level. At smaller spatial scales, however, we found strong evidence that genetic subdivision of the population occurs at the level of the maternal neighborhood. We suggest that the interaction between widespread pollen dispersal and restricted seed dispersal may be the primary factor generating these results; panmictic pollen dispersal will make detection of genetic patterning difficult at larger spatial scales while limited seed dispersal will generate local genetic structure. As a result, the detection of population genetic structure will depend on the spatial scale of analysis. Local selection gradients related to topography and soil depth are also likely to play a role in structuring local genetic variation. Since N. pulchra is widely used in California in grassland and woodland habitat restoration, we suggest that, as a general rule, care should be exercised in transferring germplasm for the purposes of conservation when little is known about the within-population genetic subdivision of a plant species.

Dyer, A. R. and K. J. Rice (1997). Intraspecific and diffuse competition: The response of Nassella pulchra in a California grassland. Ecological Applications 7(2): 484-492.

In inland California grasslands, the high densities of alien annual species have altered the growing environment for native perennial grasses. Using variable-density plots, we measured the influence of intraspecific competition (conspecifics only) and diffuse competition (mixed-composition neighborhoods that include conspecifics) on growth and survival of Nassella pulchra, purple needlegrass. We assessed the effects of intraspecific and diffuse competition in weeded plots and unweeded plots, respectively, across a density gradient of N. pulchra plants (16-356 plantS/m-2). We used summer fire and spring sheep grazing to reduce diffuse competition in unweeded plots. The potential effect of rooting volume on competitive interactions was explored by establishing plots on two sites of different soil depth. Diffuse competition had an overriding influence on N. pulchra growth in all treatments. Intraspecific competitive effects were apparent only in the absence of diffuse competition. The effects of grazing and soil depth on growth were only short-lived interactions with the burning treatment. Burning was a longer-lived interaction, but only in weeded plots. Plant mortality was significantly increased by diffuse competition. Overall, N. pulchra survival was greatest in weeded plots, in grazed plots, and in deeper soil plots. The growth of N. pulchra individuals was negatively affected by alien annual species in all treatment combinations. Our data indicate that recruitment of N. pulchra within inland California grasslands is reduced by the adverse environment created by high densities of alien annual species. Successful attempts to increase populations of N. pulchra through management of the grassland community must involve significant modification of the biotic environment.

Dyer, A. R., and K.J. Rice (in press). Effects of competition on resource availability and growth of a native bunchgrass in two California grasslands. Ecology.

Fossum, H. C. (1990). Effects of prescribed burning and grazing on Stipa pulchra (Hitchc.) seedling emergence and survival. Davis, Calif.: 67 leaves,.

Griggs, T. (1981). Life histories of vernal pool annual grasses. Fremontia 9(1): 14-18.

Guse, K. (1985). A survey of the birds at the slough of the Jepson Prairie Reserve.

Holland, R. F. (1976). The vegetation of vernal pools: a survey. Vernal Pools: Their Ecology and Conservation, University of California, Davis, Institute of Ecology.

Holland, R. F. (1982). Botanical study of the Dozier Tract of the Jepson Prairie Preserve Solano County California, The Nature Conservancy.      

Holland, R. F. (1984). Endangerment status of Lengere limosa (Greene) McVaugh in California. Orangevale, County of Sacramento, R.C. Fuller Associates, Nature Conservancy: 33.

Jain, S. K. and California. University Davis. Institute of Ecology (1976). Vernal pools: their ecology and conservation : a symposium sponsored by the Institute of Ecology, University of California, Davis, May 1-2, 1976. Davis, Institute of Ecology University of California at Davis.

Jain, S. (1976). Evolutionary studies in the meadowfoam genus Limnanthes: an overview. Vernal Pools: Their Ecology and Conservation, University of California, Davis, Institute of Ecology.   

Jain, S. (1976). Some biogeographic details of plant communities in vernal pools. Vernal Pools: Their Ecology and Conservation, University of California, Davis, Institute of Ecology.

Jain, S. K., P. B. Moyle, et al. (1984). Vernal pools and intermittent streams : a symposium, May 9 and 10, 1981. Davis, CA, The Institute.     

Janitzky, P. (1964). Biologically induced soil alkalinity. 8th International Congress of Soil Science, Bucharest, Romania 13: 767-777.

Kesseli, R. V., and Jain, Subodh K. (1984). New variation and biosystematic patterns detected by allozyme and morphological comparisons in Limnanthes sect. Reflexae (Limnanthaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 147: 133-165.

King, J. L., R. C. Brusca, et al. (1993). Crustacean communities of Northern California vernal pools. American Zoologist 33(5): 79A.

King, J. L., M. A. Simovich, et al. (1996). Species richness, endemism and ecology of crustacean assemblages in northern California vernal pools. Hydrobiologia 328(2): 85-116.

Ephemeral pools occur worldwide, provide habitat for organisms with a variety of life history strategies, and may have served as evolutionary refugia for some taxa since Mesozoic times. Yet, our understanding of the ecology and evolutionary history of ephemeral pool communities is hampered by a paucity of such basic data as the species composition of pool assemblages. We surveyed 58 vernal (ephemeral spring-time) pools from 14 sites in northern California for crustaceans, and found diverse assemblages composed largely of endemic and rare species. Sixty-seven species of crustaceans were found, and as many as 30 of these may be new, undescribed species. Differences in species composition among pools correspond with physical and chemical aspects of the habitat (depth, solutes concentration, elevation, biogeographic region), and with existing geologic/floristic-based habitat descriptions. Species richness is positively correlated with both depth and surface area. This relationship can be explained in terms of hydroperiod (accommodation of species with slower developmental rates in long-lived pools, greater time for temporal resource partitioning) and size (spatial habitat heterogeneity). High species richness and numerous co-occurrences of congeneric species in temporary pools may be due to super-abundant resources, low levels of predation, and annual truncation of the community which prevents ecological interactions from going to completion. The results of this survey underscore the need for conservation of the vernal pool habitat and endemic vernal pool species in California. The best preservation strategy will include many pools at each site, multiple sites of each habitat type, and all identified habitat types.

Langstroth, R. P. (1991). Fire and grazing ecology of Stipa pulchra grassland : a field study at Jepson Prairie, California. Davis, Calif.: 76 leaves,.

Leong, J., and Robbin Thorp (1993). Fragmentation, pollination, and recreation of vernal pools: Are pollinators too few and far between? Sacramento, CA, California Department of Transportation: 29.

Leong, J. M. (1994). Pollination of a patchily-distributed plant, Blennosperma nanum, in natural and artificially created vernal pool habitats: 98 leaves.

Leong, J. M., Robert P. Randolph, and Robbin Thorp (1995). Observations of the foraging patterns of Andrena (Diandrena) blennospermatis Thorp (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 71(1): 68-71.

Leyse, K., and Sharon P. Lawler (1998). Effects of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) on two vernal pool species (Ambystoma californiense) and California Linderiella (Linderiella occidentalis), UC Mosquito Control Research Program.

Linhart, Y. B., and I. Baker (1973). Intra-population differentiation of physiological response to flooding in a population of Veronica peregrina L. Nature 242: 275-276.

Linhart, Y. B. (1974). Intra-population differentiation in annual plants I. Veronica peregrina L. raised under non-competitive conditions. Evolution 28: 232-243.         

Linhart, Y. (1976). Evolutionary studies of plant populations in vernal pools. Vernal Pools: Their Ecology and Conservation, University of California, Davis, Institute of Ecology.

Lovio, J. C. (1983). Avian populations on a California prairie with specific reference to the Jepson Prairie, Solano County. .

Malmstrom, C. M. (1998). Barley yellow dwarf virus in native California grasses. Grasslands VIII(4).      

Ornduff, R. (1976). Sympatry, allopatry, and interspecific competition in Lasthenia. Vernal Pools: Their Ecology and Conservation, University of California, Davis, Institute of Ecology.

Parsick, D., M. A. Simovich, et al. (1993). Eubranchiopod communities in the Central Valley of California. American Zoologist 33(5): 93A.

Reeder, J. R. (1965). The Tribe Orcuttieae and the Subtribes of the Pappophoreae (Gramineae). Madrono 18: 18-29.

Reeder, J. R. (1982). Systematics of the tribe Orcuttieae (Gramineae) and the description of a new segregate genus, Tuctoria. American Journal of Botany 69: 1082-1095.

Shoulders, C. L. (1994). Methods of restoring Nassella pulchra (purple needlegrass) at Jepson Prairie Preserve, Solano County, California. Land Resources. Madison, University of Wisconsis- Madison: 92.

Stebbins, G. L., and Dean W. Taylor (1973). A survey of the natural history of the South Pacific Border Region, California. Davis, National Park Service, United States Department of Interior: 20-77.    

Stebbins, G. L. (1976). Ecological islands and vernal pools of California. Vernal Pools: Their Ecology and Conservation, University of California, Davis, Institute of Ecology.

Stone, R. D., William B. Davilla, Dean W. Taylor, Glenn L. Clifton, John C. Stebbins (1988). Status survey of the grass tribe Orcuttieae and Chamaesyce hooveri (Euphorbiaceae) in the Central Valley of California. Sacramento, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: 124 pp.    

Thorp, R. (1976). Insect pollination of vernal pool flowers. Vernal Pools: Their Ecology and Conservation, University of California, Davis, Institute of Ecology.

Thorp, R. W. (1990). Vernal pool flowers and host-specific bees. Vernal pool plants-their habitat and biology. D. H. a. R. A. S. Ikeda. Chico, Studies from the Herbarium, California State University, Chico. 8: 109-122.

Thorp, R. W., and Joan M. Leong (1995). Native bee pollinators of vernal pool plants. Fremontia 23(2): 3-7.

Thorp, R., and Joan Leong (1996). Determining effective mitigation techniques for vernal pool wetlands: Effect of host specific pollinators on vernal pool plants, California Department of Transportation, Environmental Division. 

Thorp, R. W. (1997). Vernal pool specialists: bees. California's Wild Gardens: A Living Legend. P. M. Faber, California Native Plant Society for California Department of Fish and Game: 113.

Thorp, R. W., and Joan M. Leong (1998). Specialist bee pollinators of showy vernal pool flowers. Ecology, Conservation, and Management of Vernal Pool Ecosystems - Proceedings from a 1996 Conference. C. W. Witham, E. T. Bauder, D. Belk, W. R. Ferren, Jr., and R. Ornduff. Sacramento, California Native Plant Society.

Unger, R. L. (1993). The control and ecology of Phyla nodiflora var. nodiflora at Jepson Prairie Preserve: 61 leaves.

University of California (System). Natural Reserve System (1988). Jepson Prairie Reserve. Berkeley, Calif., University of California Natural Reserve Syste     

Whittig, L. D., and P. Janitzky (1963). Mechanisms of formation of sodium carbonate in soils I. Manifestations of biological conversions. Journal of Soil Science 14(2): 322-333.   

Witham, C. W. and California Native Plant Society (1998). Ecology, conservation, and management of vernal pool ecosystems : proceedings from a 1996 conference. Sacramento, CA, California Native Plant Society.

Woodward, R. A., and Robert S. Boyd (1985). Lengere limosa at the Jepson Prairie Preserve. Davis, The Nature Conservancy: 17.


Last Updated 03/26/03